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Sentence Combining Using Coordination and Subordination
Improving the flow and connection of ideas.

What is COORDINATION of sentences?
Coordination is when you combine two complete thoughts (independent clauses) within one sentence.

What is SUBORDINATION of sentences?
Subordination is when you connect one incomplete thought (dependent clause) with one complete thought (independent clause). Often subordination involves combining two complete thoughts by making one of the two into an incomplete thought (dependent clause).

Connector Words--Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions

 

after

even though

For

although

since

And

as (as if)

unless

Nor

because

until

But

before

when(ever)

Or

if

whereas

Yet

whether

while

So

   

  * FANBOYS

Relative pronouns that, which, who


Options for COORDINATION:

Option 1:

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

,

and

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

.

 

 

 

(but)

 

 

 

 

 

(for)

 

 

 

 

 

(or)

 

 

 

 

 

(so)

 

 

 

 

 

(yet)

 

 

Explanation: Connecting complete thoughts (independent clauses) with a comma plus a coordinate conjunction (FANBOYS--for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) forms a compound sentence.

Example:
Separate: The snow is still falling fast in Burlington. It should clear up soon.
Combined: The snow is still falling fast in Burlington, but it should clear up soon.

****************************************************************

Option 2:

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

;

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

.

A SEMICOLON can be used to connect two independent clauses in one sentence.

Example:
Separate: The snow is still falling fast in Burlington. It should clear up soon.
Combined: The snow is still falling fast in Burlington; it should clear up soon.

****************************************************************

Option 3:

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

;

consequently

,

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

.

 

 

 

(furthermore)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(however)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(indeed)

 

 

 

 

 Other Conjunctive Adverbs

 

 

 

  Transitional Phrases

 

 

  (in fact)

 

(moreover)

 

  (for example)

 

 

  (thus)

 

(nevertheless)

 

  (in addition)

 

 

  (likewise)

 

(then)

 

  (in fact)

 

 

  (instead)

 

(therefore)

 

  (on the other hand)

 

A CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB or TRANSITIONAL PHRASE can be used to link two independent clauses in one sentence. A SEMICOLON is required after the first clause, and a COMMA before the second. The conjunctive adverb is essentially an introductory element for the second sentence.

Example:
Separate: Prices at that candy store seem very high. Not many people shop there.
Combined: Prices at that candy store seem very high; consequently, not many people shop there.

Options for SUBORDINATION 

Option 1:

(After)

DEPENDENT CLAUSE

,

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

.

  *

(Although)

 

 

  *Incomplete list

 

 

(As)

 

 

 

 

 

(Because)

 

 

 

 

 

(Before)

 

 

 

 

 

(If)

 

 

 

 

 

(Since)

 

 

 

 

 

(Unless)

 

 

 

 

 

(Until)

 

 

 

 

 

(When)

 

 

 

 

 

(Whereas)

 

 

 

 

 

(While)

 

 

 

 

Explanation:

A SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION used at the beginning of the sentence makes the first clause DEPENDENT. When the DEPENDENT CLAUSE starts the sentence, a COMMA is required before the independent clause (comma after introductory element).

Example:
Separate: Business is booming here. We're going to open another store.
Combined: When business is booming here, we're going to open another store.

****************************************************************

Option 2:

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

(after)

DEPENDENT CLAUSE

.

    (because)  

 

  *Incomplete list (before)  

 

    (although)    
    (unless)    

Explanation:

A SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION or SUBORDINATOR used at the beginning of the second independent clause makes it a DEPENDENT CLAUSE.

No comma is needed before the dependent clause when it comes after the independent clause because the dependent clause is still essential to the meaning of the sentence. If the dependent clause were non-essential, then a comma would be needed.

Example:
Separate: Alan excels at every sport. He is a natural athlete.
Combined: Alan excels at every sport because he is a natural athlete.


Subordinating conjunctions
are words that connect, and show the relationship between, two clauses that are not equally important. A subordinating conjunction connects a dependent clause to an independent clause in order to complete the meaning of the dependent clause.

The most common subordinators and what relationship they indicate:

Contrast: Although, Even though, While

Cause: Because, Since, As

Condition: If, When, In case, Unless(negative condition)

Time: When or Whenever, While, Once, Before, After, Since, Until

Place: Where or Wherever

 

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